The Importance of Temperature in Beer Making

Throughout the entire brewing process, temperature plays a critical role in developing a good quality beer that is consistent in taste. Small fluctuations in temperature can lead to a much different product than what was originally intended. The overall process of brewing involves a mash soak, lautering, boiling and cooling of the wort, pitching the…

Acidity in Wines

Acids give wines their characteristic crisp, slightly tart taste.  Acids occur naturally during the growing of grapes and as a part of the fermentation process. Natural acids have the freshest, purest acid tastes. Among grapes they are tartaric, malic and citric. Tartaric acid is the principal acid in grapes and is the component that promotes…

Storage Of Electrodes

Glass Electrodes All glass membranes used in pH electrodes react with water to form a hydrated gel layer. This gel layer is invisible, since it is only 50-5000 Å thick. The thickness and composition of the gel layer determine the response time, slope and alkali error of the glass electrodes. Thus, the gel layer is of…