Measuring Dissolved Oxygen in Nanobubbles

Microbubble or nanobubble technology has attracted attention of scientists in recent years.  It is an important technology in the agriculture, hydroponic, and aquaculture industries. Some of the applications of nanobubbles which have been explored around the globe are: Acceleration of metabolism in vegetables and shellfishes Improved shelf stability of products with bubbles (foam products) Nutritional…

Measuring the pH of Shampoo

Shampoo, or more accurately the concept of shampoo, has existed since the time of the first ancient civilisations. Among centuries of adaptation and development, the act of cleansing hair has changed quite dramatically; at first, a combination of oils, herbs, and perfumes were used as a way to simply freshen hair. Upon further understanding of…

Measuring Moisture Content in Aerosols and Creams

Moisture content is an important parameter in aerosols and creams. Substances such as sunscreen, muscle ache creams, and anti-fungal treatments are considered to be over-the-counter medicines; therefore the composition of these substances is closely monitored. The composition of each batch must match what is registered according to Australian regulatory guidelines for OTC medicines. Application An…

pH of Mascara

For many years, cosmetics have been used to enhance features, achieve certain styles, and help individuals stand out. As early as 4000B.C. the Egyptians used kohl, a ground mineral, to darken their lashes, brows, and eyelids. Today, mascara is used to enhance eyelashes, and is now marketed for specific features such as water resistance, longevity,…