Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) in Caustic Wastewater

Testing the wastewater at any manufacturing site is paramount in ensuring the water released into the waste stream meets the required standards. If the quality of effluent water does not meet predetermined standards, hefty fines can be issued by local, state, or federal regulatory agencies. In food manufacturing, large amounts of organic waste are produced.…

Monitoring Humidity in Greenhouses

An important aspect of agriculture and, more specifically, greenhouses is humidity. Since greenhouses are enclosed, they are subject to variations in humidity that aren’t present in open air growing environments. Too much or too little humidity, like water, can cause issues for growers. Too little water/ humidity and your plants wither away; too much water/humidity…

Measuring Chloride Content of Saline Nasal Sprays

Saline nasal sprays are readily available over-the-counter at most local pharmacies and offer users relief from irritated nasal passages. The nasal spray industry is a multi-million dollar industry, with saline sprays accounting for a signification portion of sales. Basic saline nasal sprays consist of water and sodium chloride. However, most commercial saline sprays also incorporate…

Measuring the pH of Isotonic Buffer Saline

In hospitals, intravenous (IV) solutions, such as saline or prescription drugs are commonly administered to patients for various therapies. IVs are used to deliver medications, replace fluids, balance electrolytes, and many other treatments. Since the solutions are introduced directly into the blood stream, the more similar in ionic strength the solutions are to the blood,…